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Possession (iyelik)

 basic  Comments Off on Possession (iyelik)
Mar 072012
 

Possession in Turkish is shown by adding a suffix onto the noun or adjective. The suffixes can be seen in the table:

  LAST VOWEL:
a/ı e/i o/u ö/ü
my

benim

(ı)m (i)m (u)m (ü)m
your senin (ı)n (i)n (u)n (ü)n
his/her onun (s)ı (s)i (s)u (s)ü
our bizim (ı)mız (i)miz (u)muz (ü)müz
your sizin (ı)nız (i)niz (u)nuz (ü)nüz
their onların ları leri ları leri
  • If the word ends in a vowel, the vowels in parenthesis are omitted and the letter (s) is used.
  • If the word ends in a consonant, the vowels in parenthesis are used and the letter (s) is omitted.

WARNING: Please keep in mind the following rules:

  1. If the word ends in -k, this is usually, but not always, transformed into ğ when taking a suffix that begins with a vowel. (ekmek)
  2. If the word ends in -nk, this is transformed into ng when taking a suffix that begins with a vowel. (renk)
  3. If the word ends in -t, this is usually, but not always, transformed into d when taking a suffix that begins with a vowel. (dert)
  4. If the word ends in -ç, this is usually, but not always, transformed into c when taking a suffix that begins with a vowel. (ağaç)
  5. If the word ends in -p, this is usually, but not always, transformed into b when taking a suffix that begins with a vowel. (dolap)
  6. There are several words that loose their last vowel (second letter from the end) when taking a suffix that begins with a vowel. You have to memorize these words. (göğüs)
  7. There are several words that take suffixes opposite of the table rules. You have to memorize these words. (hal)
  8. There are several words that double their last consonant when taking a suffix that begins with a vowel. You have to memorize these words. (hat)
  9. There are several words that take suffixes opposite of the table rules and also double their last consonant. You have to memorize these words. (had)
  10. There are several words that obey no rules at all. You have to memorize these words. (su)

Too many rules? Too many exceptions? No need to worry as there is an on line tool that helps you find the correct possession suffixes:

Please enter a word:


 Posted by at 1:25 pm

The time in Turkish

 basic  Comments Off on The time in Turkish
Mar 052012
 

The question “saat kaç?” asks the current time. There are 4 possibilities:

  1. Exact:
    it’s one o’clock = saat bir
    it’s twelve o’clock = saat on iki
  2. Half past:
    We use the word buçuk.
    it’s half past ten = saat on buçuk
    it’s half past three = saat  üç buçuk
    exception: half past twelve = saat yarım
  3.  1-29 minutes past:
    We use the accusative case for the hour and the word geçiyor.
    it’s ten past five = saat beşi on geçiyor
    it’s twenty five past two = saat ikiyi yirmi beş geçiyor
  4. 1-29 minutes to:
    We use the dative case for the hour and the word var.
    it’s ten minutes to four = saat dörde on var
    it’s twenty minutes to six = saat altıya yirmi var

If we are going to answer the question “saat kaçta?” (when):

  1. Exact:
    We use the locative case.
    at one o’clock = saat birde
    at twelve o’clock = saat on ikide
  2. Half past:
    We use the locative case.
    We use the word buçuk.
    at half past ten = saat on buçukta
    at half past three = saat üç buçukta
    exception: half past twelve = saat yarımda
  3. 1-29 minutes past:
    We use the accusative case for the hour and the word geçe.
    at ten past five = saat beşi on geçe
    at twenty five past two = saat ikiyi yirmi beş geçe
  4. 1-29 minutes to:
    We use the dative case for the hour and the word kala.
    at ten minutes to four = saat dörde on kala
    at twenty minutes to six = saat altıya yirmi kala

Quarter:
We use the word çeyrek.
it’s a quarter past seven = saat yediyi çeyrek geçiyor
at a quarter to eight = saat sekize çeyrek kala

Please enter the time:



 Posted by at 11:12 am

Accusative case (belirtme durumu)

 basic  Comments Off on Accusative case (belirtme durumu)
Mar 042012
 

The accusative case suffixes are –(y)ı/i/u/ü. The letter –y– is used only if the last letter of the word is a vowel. If however, the word has already got a (3rd person) possession suffix, then the letter that must be used is –n– instead of -y-.

(y)ı if the last vowel of the word is a or ı.
(y)i if the last vowel of the word is e o i.
(y)u if the last vowel of the word is o or u.
(y)ü if the last vowel of the word is is ö or ü.

Examples:

absolute accusative
bahçe bahçeyi
göz gözü
okul okulu
balkonu balkonunu
tenceresi tenceresini

 

WARNING:
There are many (mostly foreign) words that are exceptions to the above rule (a fact not mentioned by many web sites). Some of them take the opposite suffix, some others double their final letter, while others loose their last vowel. In addition many (but not all) words that end in (ç, k, p, t) transform this letter into (c, ğ, b, d):

absolute accusative
akıl aklı
hat hattı
ekmek ekmeği
gol golü

 Unfortunately there is no rule and you have to memorize these exceptions. Fortunately there is a tool to help you find out if a word is an exception or not:

 

Please enter a word:

 Posted by at 10:29 am

Genitive case (tamlayan)

 basic  Comments Off on Genitive case (tamlayan)
Mar 032012
 

The genitive case suffixes are –(n)ın/in/un/ün. The letter -n- is used only if the last letter of the word is a vowel.

(n)ın if the last vowel of the word is a or ı.
(n)in if the last vowel of the word is e o i.
(n)un if the last vowel of the word is o or u.

(n)ün if the last vowel of the word is is ö or ü.

Examples:

absolute genitive
bahçe bahçenin
göz gözün
okul okulun
balkon balkonun
tencere tencerenin

 

WARNING:
There are many (mostly foreign) words that are exceptions to the above rule (a fact not mentioned by many web sites). Some of them take the opposite suffix, some others double their final letter, while others loose their last vowel. In addition many (but not all) words that end in (ç, k, p, t) transform this letter into (c, ğ, b, d):

absolute genitive
akıl aklın
hat hattın
ağaç ağacın
gol golün

 Unfortunately there is no rule and you have to memorize these exceptions. Fortunately there is a tool to help you find out if a word is an exception or not:

 

Please enter a word:



 Posted by at 4:34 pm

Ablative case (çıkma durumu)

 basic  Comments Off on Ablative case (çıkma durumu)
Mar 032012
 

The ablative case suffixes are –dan and –den. The letter -d- is transformed into -t- if the last letter of the word is a strong consonant (ç, f, h, k, p, t, s, ş).

dan if the last vowel of the word is a back vowel (a, ı, o, u)
den if the last vowel of the word is a front vowel (e, i, ö, ü)

Examples:

absolute ablative
bahçe bahçeden
göz gözden
at attan
ekmek ekmekten
balık balıktan
et etten

 

WARNING:
There are many (mostly foreign) words that are exceptions to the above rule (a fact not mentioned by many web sites). Some of them take the opposite suffix, some others double their final letter, while others loose their last vowel:

absolute ablative
saat saatten
harf harften
hal halden
gol golden

 

Unfortunately there is no rule and you have to memorize these exceptions. Fortunately there is a tool to help you find out if a word is an exception or not:

 

Please enter a word:

 Posted by at 4:08 pm

Locative case (bulunma durumu)

 basic  Comments Off on Locative case (bulunma durumu)
Feb 282012
 

The locative case suffixes are –da and –de. The letter -d- is transformed into -t- if the last letter of the word is a strong consonant (ç, f, h, k, p, t, s, ş).

da if the last vowel of the word is a back vowel (a, ı, o, u)
de if the last vowel of the word is a front vowel (e, i, ö, ü)

Examples:

absolute locative
bahçe bahçede
göz gözde
at atta
ekmek ekmekte
balık balıkta
et ette

 

WARNING:
There are many (mostly foreign) words that are exceptions to the above rule (a fact not mentioned by many web sites). Some of them take the opposite suffix, some others double their final letter, while others loose their last vowel:

absolute locative
saat saatte
harf harfte
hal halde
gol golde

 

Unfortunately there is no rule and you have to memorize these exceptions. Fortunately there is a tool to help you find out if a word is an exception or not:

 

Please enter a word:

 Posted by at 11:05 am

Dative case (yönelme durumu)

 basic  Comments Off on Dative case (yönelme durumu)
Feb 272012
 

The dative case suffixes are –(y)a and –(y)e. The letter -y- is used only if the last letter of the word is a vowel.

(y)a if the last vowel of the word is a back vowel (a, ı, o, u)
(y)e if the last vowel of the word is a front vowel (e, i, ö, ü)

Examples:

absolute dative
bahçe bahçeye
göz göze
okul okula
balkon balkona
tencere tencereye

 

WARNING:
There are many (mostly foreign) words that are exceptions to the above rule (a fact not mentioned by many web sites). Some of them take the opposite suffix, some others double their final letter, while others loose their last vowel. In addition many (but not all) words that end in (ç, k, p, t) transform this letter into (c, ğ, b, d):

absolute dative
akıl akla
hat hatta
hal hale
ekmek ekmeğe

 

Unfortunately there is no rule and you have to memorize these exceptions. Fortunately there is a tool to help you find out if a word is an exception or not:

 

Please enter a word:

 Posted by at 2:00 pm

The plural (çoğul)

 basic  Comments Off on The plural (çoğul)
Feb 262012
 

The plural suffixes are –lar and –ler.

lar if the last vowel of the word is a back vowel (a, ı, o, u)
ler if the last vowel of the word is a front vowel (e, i, ö, ü)

Examples:

singular plural
bahçe bahçeler
göz gözler
at atlar
okul okullar
balkon balkonlar
tencere tencereler

WARNING:
There are many (mostly foreign) words that are exceptions to the above rule (a fact not mentioned by some web sites):

singular plural
saat saatler
harf harfler
hal haller
gol goller

Unfortunately there is no rule and you have to memorize these exceptions. Fortunately there is a tool to help you find out if a word is an exception or not:

Please enter a word:



 Posted by at 6:44 pm